Basic Router Configuration
Configure Basic Router Settings
Up to now, this module has only covered switches. If you want devices to be able to send and receive data outside of your network, you will have to configure routers. This topic teaches you basic router configuration and provides two Syntax Checkers and a Packet Tracer activity so you can practice these skills.
Cisco routers and Cisco switches have many similarities. They support a similar modal operating system, similar command structures, and many of the same commands. In addition, both devices have similar initial configuration steps. For example, the following configuration tasks should always be performed. Name the device to distinguish it from other routers and configure passwords, as shown in the example.
Router# configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Router(config)# hostname R1 R1(config)# enable secret class R1(config)# line console 0 R1(config-line)# password cisco R1(config-line)# login R1(config-line)# exit R1(config)# line vty 0 4 R1(config-line)# password cisco R1(config-line)# login R1(config-line)# exit R1(config)# service password-encryption R1(config)#
Configure a banner to provide legal notification of unauthorized access, as shown in the example.
R1(config)# banner motd #Authorized Access Only!# R1(config)#
Save the changes on a router, as shown in the example.
R1# copy running-config startup-config Destination filename [startup-config]? Building configuration... [OK]
Dual Stack Topology
One distinguishing feature between switches and routers is the type of interfaces supported by each. For example, Layer 2 switches support LANs; therefore, they have multiple FastEthernet or Gigabit Ethernet ports. The dual stack topology in the figure is used to demonstrate the configuration of router IPv4 and IPv6 interfaces.
Configure Router Interfaces
Routers support LANs and WANs and can interconnect different types of networks; therefore, they support many types of interfaces. For example, G2 ISRs have one or two integrated Gigabit Ethernet interfaces and High-Speed WAN Interface Card (HWIC) slots to accommodate other types of network interfaces, including serial, DSL, and cable interfaces.
To be available, an interface must be:
- Configured with at least one IP address – Use the ip address ip-address subnet-mask and the ipv6 address ipv6-address/prefix interface configuration commands.
- Activated – By default, LAN and WAN interfaces are not activated (shutdown). To enable an interface, it must be activated using the no shutdown command. (This is similar to powering on the interface.) The interface must also be connected to another device (a hub, a switch, or another router) for the physical layer to be active.
- Description – Optionally, the interface could also be configured with a short description of up to 240 characters. It is good practice to configure a description on each interface. On production networks, the benefits of interface descriptions are quickly realized as they are helpful in troubleshooting and in identifying a third-party connection and contact information.
The following example shows the configuration for the interfaces on R1.
R1(config)# interface gigabitethernet 0/0/0 R1(config-if)# ip address 192.168.10.1 255.255.255.0 R1(config-if)# ipv6 address 2001:db8:acad:1::1/64 R1(config-if)# description Link to LAN 1 R1(config-if)# no shutdown R1(config-if)# exit R1(config)# interface gigabitethernet 0/0/1 R1(config-if)# ip address 192.168.11.1 255.255.255.0 R1(config-if)# ipv6 address 2001:db8:acad:2::1/64 R1(config-if)# description Link to LAN 2 R1(config-if)# no shutdown R1(config-if)# exit R1(config)# interface serial 0/0/0 R1(config-if)# ip address 184.108.40.206 255.255.255.252 R1(config-if)# ipv6 address 2001:db8:acad:3::225/64 R1(config-if)# description Link to R2 R1(config-if)# no shutdown R1(config-if)# exit R1(config)#
IPv4 Loopback Interfaces
Another common configuration of Cisco IOS routers is enabling a loopback interface.
The loopback interface is a logical interface that is internal to the router. It is not assigned to a physical port and can never be connected to any other device. It is considered a software interface that is automatically placed in an “up” state, as long as the router is functioning.
The loopback interface is useful in testing and managing a Cisco IOS device because it ensures that at least one interface will always be available. For example, it can be used for testing purposes, such as testing internal routing processes, by emulating networks behind the router.
Loopback interfaces are also commonly used in lab environments to create additional interfaces. For example, you can create multiple loopback interfaces on a router to simulate more networks for configuration practice and testing purposes. In this curriculum, we often use a loopback interface to simulate a link to the internet.
Enabling and assigning a loopback address is simple:
Router(config)# interface loopback number
Router(config-if)# ip address ip-address subnet-mask
Multiple loopback interfaces can be enabled on a router. The IPv4 address for each loopback interface must be unique and unused by any other interface, as shown in the example configuration of loopback interface 0 on R1.
R1(config)# interface loopback 0 R1(config-if)# ip address 10.0.0.1 255.255.255.0 R1(config-if)# exit R1(config)# %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Loopback0, changed state to up