Inter-VLAN Routing using Layer 3 Switches
Layer 3 Switch Inter-VLAN Routing
Modern, enterprise networks rarely use router-on-a-stick because it does not scale easily to meet requirements. In these very large networks, network administrators use Layer 3 switches to configure inter-VLAN routing.
Inter-VLAN routing using the router-on-a-stick method is simple to implement for a small to medium-sized organization. However, a large enterprise requires a faster, much more scalable method to provide inter-VLAN routing.
Enterprise campus LANs use Layer 3 switches to provide inter-VLAN routing. Layer 3 switches use hardware-based switching to achieve higher-packet processing rates than routers. Layer 3 switches are also commonly implemented in enterprise distribution layer wiring closets.
Capabilities of a Layer 3 switch include the ability to do the following:
- Route from one VLAN to another using multiple switched virtual interfaces (SVIs).
- Convert a Layer 2 switchport to a Layer 3 interface (i.e., a routed port). A routed port is similar to a physical interface on a Cisco IOS router.
To provide inter-VLAN routing, Layer 3 switches use SVIs. SVIs are configured using the same interface vlan vlan-id command used to create the management SVI on a Layer 2 switch. A Layer 3 SVI must be created for each of the routable VLANs.
Layer 3 Switch Scenario
In the figure, the Layer 3 switch, D1, is connected to two hosts on different VLANs. PC1 is in VLAN 10 and PC2 is in VLAN 20, as shown. The Layer 3 switch will provide inter-VLAN routing services to the two hosts.
The table shows the IP addresses for each VLAN.
D1 VLAN IP Addresses
|VLAN Interface||IP Address|
Layer 3 Switch Configuration
Complete the following steps to configure S1 with VLANs and trunking:
Step 1. Create the VLANs.
Step 2. Create the SVI VLAN interfaces.
Step 3. Configure access ports.
Step 4. Enable IP routing.
Click each button for details of the configuration step.
1. Create the VLANs.
First, create the two VLANs as shown in the output.
D1(config)# vlan 10 D1(config-vlan)# name LAN10 D1(config-vlan)# vlan 20 D1(config-vlan)# name LAN20 D1(config-vlan)# exit D1(config)#
2. Create the SVI VLAN interfaces.
Configure the SVI for VLANs 10 and 20. The IP addresses that are configured will serve as the default gateways to the hosts in the respective VLANs. Notice the informational messages showing the line protocol on both SVIs changed to up.
D1(config)# interface vlan 10 D1(config-if)# description Default Gateway SVI for 192.168.10.0/24 D1(config-if)# ip add 192.168.10.1 255.255.255.0 D1(config-if)# no shut D1(config-if)# exit D1(config)# D1(config)# int vlan 20 D1(config-if)# description Default Gateway SVI for 192.168.20.0/24 D1(config-if)# ip add 192.168.20.1 255.255.255.0 D1(config-if)# no shut D1(config-if)# exit D1(config)# *Sep 17 13:52:16.053: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Vlan10, changed state to up *Sep 17 13:52:16.160: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Vlan20, changed state to up
3. Configure access ports.
Next, configure the access ports connecting to the hosts and assign them to their respective VLANs.
D1(config)# interface GigabitEthernet1/0/6 D1(config-if)# description Access port to PC1 D1(config-if)# switchport mode access D1(config-if)# switchport access vlan 10 D1(config-if)# exit D1(config)# D1(config)# interface GigabitEthernet1/0/18 D1(config-if)# description Access port to PC2 D1(config-if)# switchport mode access D1(config-if)# switchport access vlan 20 D1(config-if)# exit
4. Enable IP routing.
Finally, enable IPv4 routing with the ip routing global configuration command to allow traffic to be exchanged between VLANs 10 and 20. This command must be configured to enable inter-VAN routing on a Layer 3 switch for IPv4.
D1(config)# ip routing D1(config)#
Layer 3 Switch Inter-VLAN Routing Verification
Inter-VLAN routing using a Layer 3 switch is simpler to configure than the router-on-a-stick method. After the configuration is complete, the configuration can be verified by testing connectivity between the hosts.
From a host, verify connectivity to a host in another VLAN using the ping command. It is a good idea to first verify the current host IP configuration using the ipconfig Windows host command. The output confirms the IPv4 address and default gateway of PC1.
C:\Users\PC1> ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Ethernet0: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . : Link-local IPv6 Address : fe80::5c43:ee7c:2959:da68%6 IPv4 Address : 192.168.10.10 Subnet Mask : 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway : 192.168.10.1 C:\Users\PC1>
Next, verify connectivity with PC2 using the ping Windows host command, as shown in the output. The ping output successfully confirms inter-VLAN routing is operating.
C:\Users\PC1> ping 192.168.20.10 Pinging 192.168.20.10 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.168.20.10: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=127 Reply from 192.168.20.10: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=127 Reply from 192.168.20.10: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=127 Reply from 192.168.20.10: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=127 Ping statistics for 192.168.20.10: Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms C:\Users\PC1>
Routing on a Layer 3 Switch
If VLANs are to be reachable by other Layer 3 devices, then they must be advertised using static or dynamic routing. To enable routing on a Layer 3 switch, a routed port must be configured.
A routed port is created on a Layer 3 switch by disabling the switchport feature on a Layer 2 port that is connected to another Layer 3 device. Specifically, configuring the no switchport interface configuration command on a Layer 2 port converts it into a Layer 3 interface. Then the interface can be configured with an IPv4 configuration to connect to a router or another Layer 3 switch.
Routing Scenario on a Layer 3 Switch
In the figure, the previously configured D1 Layer 3 switch is now connected to R1. R1 and D1 are both in an Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol domain. Assume inter-VLAN has been successfully implemented on D1. The G0/0/1 interface of R1 has also been configured and enabled. Additionally, R1 is using OSPF to advertise its two networks, 10.10.10.0/24 and 10.20.20.0/24.
Note: OSPF routing configuration is covered in another course. In this module, OSPF configuration commands will be given to you in all activities and assessments. It is not required that you understand the configuration in order to enable OSPF routing on the Layer 3 switch.
Routing Configuration on a Layer 3 Switch
Complete the following steps to configure D1 to route with R1:
Step 1. Configure the routed port.
Step 2. Enable routing.
Step 3. Configure routing.
Step 4. Verify routing.
Step 5. Verify connectivity.