oke Tunnels. The Hub is a router which has three connections to other routers, Spoke A, Spoke B and Spoke C.
DMVPN Hub-to-Spoke Tunnels
Each site is configured using Multipoint Generic Routing Encapsulation (mGRE). The mGRE tunnel interface allows a single GRE interface to dynamically support multiple IPsec tunnels. Therefore, when a new site requires a secure connection, the same configuration on the hub site would support the tunnel. No additional configuration would be required.
Spoke sites could also obtain information about other spoke sites from the central site and create virtual spoke-to-spoke tunnels as shown in the figure.
DMVPN Hub-to-Spoke and Spoke-to-Spoke Tunnels
IPsec Virtual Tunnel Interface
Like DMVPNs, IPsec Virtual Tunnel Interface (VTI) simplifies the configuration process required to support multiple sites and remote access. IPsec VTI configurations are applied to a virtual interface instead of static mapping the IPsec sessions to a physical interface.
IPsec VTI is capable of sending and receiving both IP unicast and multicast encrypted traffic. Therefore, routing protocols are automatically supported without having to configure GRE tunnels.
IPsec VTI can be configured between sites or in a hub-and-spoke topology.
Service Provider MPLS VPNs
Traditional service provider WAN solutions such as leased lines, Frame Relay, and ATM connections were inherently secure in their design. Today, service providers use MPLS in their core network. Traffic is forwarded through the MPLS backbone using labels that are previously distributed among the core routers. Like legacy WAN connections, traffic is secure because service provider customers cannot see each other’s traffic.
MPLS can provide clients with managed VPN solutions; therefore, securing traffic between client sites is the responsibility of the service provider. There are two types of MPLS VPN solutions supported by service providers:
- Layer 3 MPLS VPN – The service provider participates in customer routing by establishing a peering between the customer’s routers and the provider’s routers. Then customer routes that are received by the provider’s router are then redistributed through the MPLS network to the customer’s remote locations.
- Layer 2 MPLS VPN – The service provider is not involved in the customer routing. Instead, the provider deploys a Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS) to emulate an Ethernet multiaccess LAN segment over the MPLS network. No routing is involved. The customer’s routers effectively belong to the same multiaccess network.
The figure shows a service provider that offers both Layer 2 and Layer 3 MPLS VPNs.